Building a stairway is definitely going to be a difficult task if you do not have proper planning on delivering the task. A stairway comes in several different shapes and sizes depending on the spirit and designing style of a particular home and also its square footage available, for example “L” shaped stairs, “T” shaped stairs,
Circular stairways, Elliptical stairs or spiral stairway. In order to create a stairway, below are some of the steps that you can do;
What you need:
- 2×10 Stringers
- 5/4-inch or 2-inch Tread Material
- Angle Iron
- Hex Bolts
- 8d Galvanized Nails
- 2-inch Railing Material
- Measuring Tape
- Joist Hangers
- 1×8 Risers
- 2×6 Pressure-Treated Cleat
- Anchor Bolts
- 16d Galvanized Nails
- 4×4 Posts
- Baluster Material
- Carpenter\’s Square
- Adjustable Wrench
- First of all, you need to calculate the total rise of the stairway. The normal calculation is by dividing the total rise figure by 7 which is the ideal riser number for creating the number of steps needed. Example of calculation is as follow:
a) Total rise = 40-1/2″
b) 40-1/2″ divided by 7″ per riser = 5.78 risers
c) Round 5.78 up to 6 risers, then 40-1/2″ divided by 6 = 6.75″ or 6-3/4″ per riser
- By multiplying the number of risers by the passage width, you will be able to find the amount of material needed for risers. For the amount of tread material, subtract 1 from number of risers (which is one less tread than risers) and multiply it by the passage width. For the length of the stringers, use a calculator that has square root function, but first find the total run which is the number of treads multiply by the width of each tread. Then, you need to find the square root of the total run and add it up with the square root of the total rise.
- After that, you can start notching the stringers for the treads and risers. You also need to fasten two stair gauges using a carpenter\’s square at the dimensions of the rise and run. Then, set the square on the stringer enabling the gauges to flush against the edge and trace the notch along the edge of the square.
- Step your way down the stringer, repeating the process until you manage to lay out the correct number of notches. By using the carpenter\’s square, lay out the top cut on the stringer, while the height of the last riser should be less than the others by an amount equal to the thickness of the tread. In doing so, when you nail the last tread in place, the step down to the lower floor will be equal to the others. The stringer also can be set directly on the lower floor (typically a landing pad) and you can bolt it along with a piece of angle iron, or bolt a length of pressure-treated 2×6 to the floor and nail the stringer to it.
- Once the stringer has been laid out, you have to cut the notches partway only by using a circular saw and be extra careful not to cut it beyond the layout lines. Lastly, finish the cuts off using a handsaw. After finishing with stringer, use it as template for cutting out the other stringers accordingly.
- In order to hang the stringers onto the rim joist, you need to use joist hangers, or bolt them to a joist. If you are using a concrete landing pad at the bottom of the stairway, set the stringers in place temporarily and lay out the location of the pad. Pour concrete onto the pad and set anchor bolts for the angle iron or 2×6 base. After finishing with the landing pad, you need to secure the stringers at the top and bottom, while the risers need to be ripped with the same width as the height of the riser cut in the stringers. Then, it needs to be cut according to length and nail them to the stringers using an 8d galvanized nails.
- Measure the distance from the face of the riser to the edge of the notch cut and then rip the treads to width so that they will extend 1″ to 1-1/8″ beyond the edge of the notch.
- For the building of railing, secure a 4×4 posts at the top and bottom of the stringer and notch the posts 1-1/2″ deep before bolting them to the sides of the stringers with 1/2×4-1/2 hex bolts, using a level to keep them plumb. It is recommended to use a decay-resistant lumber for the posts and they should at least be long enough to extend 36″ above the surface of the treads. Make sure to leave them a few inches long at the top to enable you to cut them when they are already in place.
- Then, measure the length from bottom stringer up to the top location of the posts and bottom rails. Its top surface upper rail should be at least 30″ to 34″ above the tread, while the rail about 6″ above the tread. Ensure the railing materials are laid against the posts and lay out angled cuts for any rails that will be fastened between the posts. Last but not least, cut the railings according to length and toenail them with four 8d galvanized nails.